Common Medical Lab Tests
Doctor & Medical Specialties
Common Medical Lab Tests
ALC   ; Albumin   ; Alkaline Phosphatase   ; Bilirubin   ; BUN   ; Cholesterol   ; Cholesterol Ratio   ; Creatinine   ; Fructosamine   ; GGTP or GGT   ; Globulin   ; Glucose   ; HDL   ; Hepatitis - A, B, C   ; HIV   ; LDL   ; Liver Function Tests - SGOT,SGPT   ; PSA   ; Triglycerides  ;
This is a blood test given to diabetics to determine how well their condition is under control. It is a very effective tool in monitoring Diabetic control as it shows the amount of glucose in your blood over the last six or more weeks

Influential Factors: Hemolysis or Sickle cell abnormalities. Go to Top
The most abundant protein in the blood. Albumin nourishes tissues and transports nutrients throughout the body, as well as helping to keep the integrity of the vessel walls. It is made in the liver and is very sensitive to liver damage. Albumin levels can also be elevated in cases with kidney damage, malnourishment, or dehydration.
Influential Factors: increased amounts of steroids, androgens and insulin Go to Top
Alkaline Phosphatase
A test in the basic liver panel. It is an enzyme that helps cells work. High concentrations can be found in bone producing cells and in the liver.
Influential Factors: Pregnancy and not fasting before the test. Kids tend to have elevations especially during the developmental years. Go to Top
A pigment produced when the liver processes waste products. When red blood cells are removed from the bloodstream, hemoglobin, the molecule in red cells that carries oxygen, is broken down into bilirubin. The bilirubin is carried to the liver and excreted into the intestine as a component of bile. The liver is responsible for removing bilirubin from the blood. When bilirubin levels are high, a condition called Jaundice occurs which causes yellowing of the skin and eyes.
Reference Range: 1.0 mg Go to Top
Blood urea nitrogen. A measure primarily of the urea level in blood. Urea Nitrogen is a metabolic by product in the liver from the breakdown of blood, muscle and protein. It is cleared by the kidney and diseases which compromise the function of the kidney will frequently lead to increased blood urea nitrogen levels. Blood urea nitrogen can be measured from a simple venipuncture specimen. Abnormal elevation in the blood urea nitrogen can indicate renal disease, dehydration, congestive heart failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, starvation, shock or urinary tract obstruction (by tumor or prostate gland). Low BUN level can indicate liver disease, malnutrition or a low protein diet. Go to Top
Cholesterol is a fatty substance that is an important part of the outer lining of cells in the body of animals. Cholesterol is also found in the blood circulation of humans. The cholesterol in a person's blood originates from two major sources, dietary intake and liver production. Dietary cholesterol comes mainly from meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products. After a meal, cholesterol is absorbed by the intestines into the blood. The liver is capable of removing cholesterol from the blood circulation as well as manufacturing cholesterol and secreting cholesterol into the blood circulation. There are two types of cholesterol in the body, LDL and HDL. LDL cholesterol is known as "bad" cholesterol since it is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease. HDL is called the "good cholesterol" because HDL cholesterol particles prevent atherosclerosis by extracting cholesterol from the artery walls and disposing of them through the liver. Go to Top
Cholesterol Ratio
The total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio (total/HDL) is a number that is helpful in predicting atherosclerosis. The number is obtained by dividing total cholesterol by HDL cholesterol. (High ratios indicate higher risks of heart attacks, low ratios indicate lower risk). High total cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol increases the ratio, and is undesirable. Conversely, high HDL cholesterol and low total cholesterol lowers the ratio, and is desirable. The best ratio would be 2 or 3 or less than 4, however, average is 4.5. Go to Top
A chemical waste product of muscle metabolism that is transported by the bloodstream, filtered by the kidneys and eliminated in the urine. It can be measured to assess overall kidney function. An abnormally elevated blood creatinine level is seen in those individuals with kidney insufficiency and kidney failure. Creatinine has been found to be a fairly reliable indicator of kidney function. As the kidneys become impaired the creatinine will rise. Abnormally high levels of creatinine thus warn of possible malfunction or failure of the kidneys, sometimes even before a patient reports any symptoms. It is for this reason that standard blood and urine tests routinely check the amount of creatinine in the blood. Go to Top
Fructosamine is a measurement of a person's average blood sugar concentration from the most recent two or three weeks. This is an indicator of diabetes and/or the level of control of diabetes. Go to Top
Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase is an enzyme that is measured as part of liver function tests. This enzyme is very sensitive to changes within the liver and can indicate a number of conditions such as alcoholism, cirrhosis, hepatitis, carcinoma and jaundice. This test should be used with other liver studies such as ALT and AST.
Influential Factors: medications, tobacco use, build, alcohol use Go to Top
A class of simple proteins that occur widely in plant and animal tissue. It is found in the blood and contains antibodies, other proteins and enzymes. Go to Top
It is the end product of carbohydrate metabolism and is the chief source of energy for living organisms, its utilization in the body is controlled by insulin. Glucose is commonly called sugar and is a major source of energy in the human body. The measurement of glucose is used in the diagnosis and management of diabetes. By measuring glucose we can see how well the body is able to regulate and breakdown sugar for energy.
Influential Factors: Stress, trauma, heart attacks, caffeine Go to Top
Abbreviation for High Density Lipoprotein which is a part of the lipid panel. HDL carries excess cholesterol away for disposal, so a higher lever (up to 75 mg) is considered a positive risk factor. HDL levels should be evaluated as part of the entire lipid panel and not as an individual finding.
Influential Factors: Alcohol use, tobacco use and exercise Go to Top
Inflammation of the liver from any cause. Hepatitis is most often viral, due to infection with one of the hepatitis viruses (A, B, C, D, and E) or another virus (such as those that cause infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus disease, or yellow fever). The main nonviral causes of hepatitis are alcohol and drugs. Hepatitis is a major public health problem. Approximately 400 million people have hepatitis B and 170 million have hepatitis C. Both cause chronic liver infection that can be fatal. Hepatitis B and C are implicated in 80% of cases of liver cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. Go to Top
Hepatitis A
is a virus that causes liver disease. The condition affects between 125,000 and 200,000 people in the U.S. each year. This form of hepatitis never leads to a chronic infection and usually has no complications. The liver usually heals from hepatitis A within two months. However, occasional deaths from hepatitis A have occurred due to massive liver infection. Hepatitis A can be prevented by vaccination. Casual contact, as in a school, office, or another work setting, does not spread the virus. The symptoms and signs tend to appear abruptly and may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) and dark urine. Symptoms usually last less than 2 months. A few persons are ill for as long as 6 months. Recovery is usually complete. The diagnosis of hepatitis A is confirmed by a blood test (IgM anti-HAV). Go to Top
Hepatitis B
is inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis B virus (HBV). This form of hepatitis causes liver damage. Most people recover from the virus within 6 months, but sometimes the virus will cause a lifelong, chronic infection, resulting in serious liver damage. Each year, between 200,000 and 300,000 people in the U.S. may become infected. Once infected, a person can spread the virus even if they do not feel sick. It was once thought to be passed only through blood products. It is now known that hepatitis B can also be transmitted via needle sticks, body piercing and tattooing using un-sterilized instruments, the dialysis process, sexual and even less intimate close contact, and childbirth. Symptoms include fatigue, jaundice, nausea, vomiting, dark urine, light stools. Diagnosis is by blood test. Treatment is via anti-viral drugs and/or hepatitis B immunoglobulin. HBV infection can be prevented by the hepatitis B vaccine, and by avoiding activities that could lead to getting the virus. Go to Top
Hepatitis C
is inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the U.S., Hepatitis C is the number one reason for liver transplant. At least 80% of patients with hepatitis C develop a chronic liver infection. This disease infects approximately 2.7 million people in the U.S. It often does not show any symptoms. No vaccine is yet available to prevent hepatitis C, which is usually spread by blood transfusion, hemodialysis, and needle sticks. HCV causes most transfusion-associated hepatitis, and the damage it does to the liver can lead to cirrhosis and cancer. Transmission of the virus by sexual contact is rare. At least half of HCV patients develop chronic hepatitis C infection. Diagnosis is by blood test. Treatment is via anti-viral drugs. Chronic hepatitis C may be treated with interferon, sometimes in combination with anti-virals. There is no vaccine for hepatitis C.
Reference Range: Results are either negative or positive Go to Top
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks the immune system, making it difficult for the body to fight infection and disease. HIV is the same virus that also causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, having HIV does not mean you have AIDS. AIDS is the last and most severe stage of the HIV infection. Some people live with HIV for years or even decades before the condition progresses to AIDS. Once HIV enters the body, it infects a type of white blood cell called CD4+ cells. These white blood cells are an important part of the immune system that helps you fight infections. As CD4+ white blood cells are attacked and destroyed by HIV, the immune system becomes less able to fight infection and disease. All insurance Companies test for HIV as part of their normal lab profile.
Reference Range: Negative or Positive Go to Top
Low Density Lipoprotein is part of the regular lipid panel along with cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides. It is a risk factor for heart disease. LDL is a carrier of cholesterol and is considered bad because it deposits cholesterol into the walls of blood vessels.
Influential Factors: Recent illness, Not fasting before blood is taken, pregnancy, stress Go to Top
Liver Function Tests
ALT, AST, SGOT, SGPT are simple blood tests to determine the presence of certain liver enzymes in the blood which may indicate liver damage. The tests measure some of the most sensitive liver enzymes which are called aminotransferases. Under normal circumstances, these enzymes reside within the cells of the liver. But when the liver is injured, these enzymes are spilled into the blood stream.
is normally found in a variety of tissues including liver, heart, muscle, kidney, and brain. It is released into serum when any one of these tissues is damaged. For example, its level in serum rises with heart attacks and with muscle disorders. It is therefore not a highly specific indicator of liver injury. ALT (SGPT)
is, by contrast, normally found largely in the liver. This is not to say that it is exclusively located in liver but that is where it is most concentrated. It is released into the bloodstream as the result of liver injury. It therefore serves as a fairly specific indicator of liver status.
Influential Factors: Medications such as those used for pain relief, cholesterol or seizures, also antibiotics and cardiovascular medications. Go to Top
PSA is a protein produced by the prostate gland. Although most PSA is carried out of the body in semen, a very small amount escapes into the blood stream. The PSA test is done on blood. Since the amount of PSA in blood is normally minute, the PSA test requires a very sensitive method based on monoclonal antibody technology. PSA in blood can be by itself as free PSA or it can join with other substances in the blood as bound PSA. Total PSA is the sum of free and bound forms. This is what is measured as the standard PSA test. A test for PSA may be used to screen for cancer of the prostate and to monitor treatment of the disease. Most insurance companies do not test for PSA unless the applicant is over 50. The amount of PSA in the blood normally increases as a man's prostate enlarges with age. It is also increased by inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) and by prostate cancer.
Influential Factors: Various chemotherapy drugs, extreme amounts of bike riding, testing within six weeks of prostate manipulation Go to Top
The major form of fat. A triglyceride consists of three molecules of fatty acid combined with a molecule of the alcohol glycerol Triglycerides come from the food we eat as well as from being produced by the body. Triglyceride levels are influenced by recent fat and alcohol intake, and should be measured after fasting for at least 12 hours. A period of abstinence from alcohol is advised before testing for triglycerides. The word "triglyceride" reflects the fact that a triglyceride consists of three ("tri-") molecules of fatty acid combined with a molecule of the alcohol glycerol ("-glyceride") that serves as the backbone in many types of lipids (fats). When you eat a high-calorie meal, your body uses the calories it needs for quick energy and converts the excess into triglycerides that are stored as fat to use as energy later. In normal amounts, triglycerides are essential to good health.
Disclaimer:The owner of the gadget or this website do not make any claim regarding the information being provided here be treated for treatment or analysing it; it is just information of the terms used and in case of any problem Doctor's consultation be obtained.If any loss or damage is caused to any person due to his/her treating or interpreting the contents of this gadget the website/owner of the gadget will not be liable in any manner whatsoever for such loss or damage. Go to Top

Medical Specialties ( Click Or Scroll )

Acupuncture Uses procedures adapted from Chinese medicine to relieve pain or for therapeutic purposes.

Addiction Medicine Works with patients who have substance abuse disorders. Specializes in prevention, diagnosis, treatment of withdrawal, medical or psychiatric complications, relapse, and the monitoring of recovery.

Adolescent Medicine Specializes in teenagers; commonly deals with sexually-transmitted diseases, puberty issues, birth-control, and other child health issues.

Aerospace Medicine Focused on the health of the crew, passengers, and support personnel of air and space vehicles.

Allergy and Immunology Specializes in allergies and immune system problems; treats kids with frequent infections or allergies.

Anesthesiology Provides relief from pain and maintains or restores a stable condition during surgical, obstetric, or diagnostic procedures.

Audiologist Focused on identifying, diagnosing, and treating hearing disorders.

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Bariatrician Focused on the care of obese patients.

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Cardiology Focused on diseases of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels. Includes management of heart attacks and abnormal heart rhythms

Chiropractic Therapeutic method of treatment based on interaction of the spine and nervous system.

Clinical Laboratory Immunology Focused on conducting tests of specimens to determine a patient's general health. Results are used by physicians to diagnose illnesses and determine proper treatment.

Clinical Pathology Concerned with diagnosing a disease based on laboratory analysis of body fluids.

Colon/Rectal Surgery Diagnoses and treats various diseases of the intestinal tract, colon, rectum, and perianal area by medical and surgical means.

Critical Care The Critical Care physician is based in the ICU or CCU and has a broad knowledge of all aspects of management of the critically ill patient.

Cytopathology Focused on the diagnosis of disease through the study of cells, including pap tests. This specialist is a consultant to all medical specialists.

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Dentistry specializes in teeth.

Dermatology Concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders of the skin and related tissues. Treats a number of sexually transmitted diseases and corrects cosmetic skin defects.

Dermatopathology Focused on the laboratory study of skin samples.

Diabetes Specialty Concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of metabolic disorders related to impairment or loss of pancreatic function.

Diagnostic Radiologist Radiology Uses radiant energy in diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. Includes imaging through X-rays, ultrasound, etc.

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Emergency Medicine Concerned with the immediate decisions and actions required to prevent further disability or death of a patient in an emergency room setting.

Endocrinology specializes in hormone and gland problems such as diabetes and problems with growth, puberty, or metabolism.

Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology ESNR specialists focus on less invasive, catheter-based techniques to treat patients who are unable to undergo conventional surgery or in situations where no conventional surgery options exist.

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Family Practice Concerned with the healthcare of an individual and family, including all ages. Integrates the biological, behavioral, and clinical sciences.

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Gastroenterology specializes in nutrition and problems with the stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder and pancreas.

Genetics The scientific study of heredity and hereditary diseases and disorders and metabolic disorders.

Geriatrics Focused on the aging process and special skills required to treat illness in the elderly. Trained to recognize unusual presentations of illness and drug interaction.

Gynecology Concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the female reproductive system.

Gynecology Oncology Focused on gynecologic cancer and its complications.

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Hematology specializes in on diseases of the blood, blood clotting mechanisms, bone marrow, spleen, and lymph glands.

Hematology/Oncology Specifically trained to treat diseases of the blood and cancer.

Hepatology Concerned with treating liver, gallbladder, and pancreas disorders.

Holistic Medicine Focuses on the whole person and looks at physical, mental, spiritual, and emotional well-being prior to determining a treatment.

Hospitalist Provides general medical care of hospital patients. Responsible for patient care and research. Coordinates with patient's primary care/referring physician.

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Immunology Focused on the body's ability to combat infectious or irritating substances that threaten it with disease.

Infectious Disease Concerned with all types of infectious diseases in all organs.

Internal Medicine Focused on long-term comprehensive care. Manages common illnesses and complex medical problems.

Interventional Cardiology Focuses on catheter-based treatment of heart disease including angioplasty, valvuloplasty, and coronary thrombectomy.

Interventional RadiologyLike a Radiologist, specialize in X-rays, ultrasounds, CT scans and MRI's. However, they also perform invasive procedures such as biopsies, placement of stents, drainage of cysts and abscesses, etc.

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Medical Oncology Focused on the diagnosis and treatment of all types of cancer and other benign and malignant tumors.

Medical Toxicology Concerned with treating patients who have been exposed to poisons including medications, adverse drug reactions, environmental toxins, industrial chemicals, or bioterrorism agents.

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Neonatology Focused on medical care for ill newborn infants. Also serve as consultants to general pediatricians in routine care for newborns.

Nephrology Focused on the scientific study of the kidney, its disorders, high blood pressure, fluid and mineral balance, and dialysis. Consults with surgeons regarding kidney transplantation.

Neurology Focused on the treatment of all diseases and impaired functions of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

Neuroradiology Specifically trained in using digital angiography, MRI, CT, PET, ultrasound, and X-rays to evaluate the brain, head, neck, and spine.

Neurosurgery Provides operative and non-operative management of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous system. Includes the operative and non-operative management of pain.

Nuclear Cardiology Focuses on using small amounts of radioactive substances and non-invasive techniques to assess the health of a patient's heart.

Nuclear Medicine Focused on nuclear properties of radioactive and stable nuclides to evaluate conditions in clinical and laboratory settings.

Nutrition Concerned with food requirements and the effects of nutrients.

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Obstetrics/Gynecology Medical and surgical care of the female reproductive system and associated disorders.

Occupational Medicine Focused on the health of workers, the ability to perform work, and physical and chemical environments of the workplace.

Oncology Focuses on cancer, and the diagnosis and treatment of tumors.

Ophthalmology Comprehensive care of the eye and vision. Medical and surgical treatment of all eye, eyelid, and orbital problems.

Optometrist - specializes in vision. Medical issues of the eye are often referred to an Opthalmologist.

Orthodontist - specializes in straightening the teeth (with braces for example). Otolaryngology - specializes in ear, nose and throat disorders. They perform surgeries such as removing tonsils and adenoids, and placing "ear tubes."

Optometry Focuses on vision, visual systems, and the health of the eyes.

Orthopedic Foot & Ankle Concerned with the medical and surgical treatment of diseases and injuries of the foot and ankle.

Orthopedic Reconstructive Surgery Focused on surgical replacement of joints, such as knee and hip.

Orthopedic Spine Surgery Concerned with surgical treatment of diseases and injuries of the spine.

Orthopedic Surgery The preservation or restoration of form and function of the extremities, spine, and associated structures by medical, surgical, and physical means.

Osteopathy Focuses on using conventional treatment methods, as well as placing emphasis on body, mind, and spirit.

Other Specialty A specialty other than those defined.

Otorhinolaryngology The medical and surgical care of the ears, nose, throat, respiratory, and upper alimentary systems. Also called Otolaryngology.

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Pain Management Specifically trained in the treatment and prevention of chronic pain or pain complicated by other medical conditions.

Pathology perform autopsies and look at body tissues under a microscope .

Pediatric Allergy Concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of allergies in children.

Pediatric Cardiology Concerned with the care of children with cardiovascular problems.

Pediatric Critical Care Concerned with the care of critically ill children in an ICU environment.

Pediatric Emergency Medicine Concerned with the immediate decisions and actions required to prevent further disability or death of a child.

Pediatric Endocrinology Focused on care of children with diseases related to abnormalities in the endocrine glands, including diabetes mellitus, growth disorders, early or later puberty, birth defects, etc.

Pediatric Gastroenterology Focused on disorders of the digestive system of infants, children, and adolescents.

Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Focused on the care of children with blood or cancerous diseases.

Pediatric Internal Medicine Focused on the long-term relationship with a patient. Trained to provide care for newborns, children, adolescents, and adults. Physicians are typically certified in a Med/Peds program.

Pediatric Neurology Concerned with the care of the brain, spinal cord, and nervous system of children.

Pediatric Ophthalmology Concerned with providing comprehensive care of the eye and vision in children.

Pediatric Psychiatry Focused on mental, addictive, and emotional disorders of children.

Pediatric Pulmonology Concerned with the care of diseases and disorders of the lungs of children.

Pediatric Radiology Focused on the pediatric application of imaging technologies.

Pediatric Surgery Focused on the management of surgical conditions in children.

Pediatrics Focused on the health of children from birth to young adulthood.

Perinatal Focused on providing care either immediately before or after birth.

Physical Medicine/Rehab Concerned with the maximal restoration of physical, psychological, social, vocational function, and alleviation of pain for patients with impairments or disabilities.

Plastic Surgery Concerned with the repair and reconstruction of defects of the skin and its underlying musculoskeletal system, with emphasis on the face, head, limbs, breasts, and external genitalia.

Podiatry Focused on the treatment of foot and ankle disorders.

Preventative Medicine Specifically trained in preventing disease, disability, or premature death of individuals and populations.

Psychiatry Focused on the treatment of mental, addictive, and emotional disorders.

Psychology Focused on the treatment of mental functions and behaviors.

Pulmonary Critical Care Concerned with caring for patients with life-threatening pulmonary illnesses, such as COPD, asthma, emphysema, lung cancer, and pneumonia.

Pulmonology Concerned with diseases of the lungs and airways.

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Radiation Oncology Deals with the therapeutic applications of radiant energy and the study and management of cancers and other diseases.

Radiology Deals with the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of radiant energy.

Reproductive Endocrinology Focused on the problems related to endocrinology and infertility.

Rheumatology Concerned with diseases of the joints, muscles, bones, and tendons, including arthritis, back pain, and muscle strains.

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Sleep Medicine Medicine Focused on the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders.

Sports Medicine Specifically trained to treat sports injuries of athletes and active individuals.

Surgical Oncology Focused on the surgical management of malignant tumors.

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Thoracic Surgery Operative care of patients with conditions within the chest, including coronary artery disease, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, heart valve, and major vessel abnormalities.

Transplant Surgery Focused on surgically transplanting organs, including the kidney, liver, lung, or pancreas.

Trauma Surgery Deals with the treatment of wounds and injuries through surgical methods.

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Urgent Care Specifically trained in providing treatment of non-emergency illnesses and injuries, such as sore throats, ear infections, minor cuts and bruises.

Urology Concerned with medical and surgical treatment of disorders of the urinary and male reproductive systems.

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Vascular & Interventional Radiology Focused on using images and minimally invasive procedures for diagnostic or treatment purposes.

Vascular Surgery Concerned with the surgical treatment of disorders of the blood vessels.

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Doctor Specialization ( Click Or Scroll )
Allergist or Immunologist
Conducts the diagnosis and treatment of allergic conditions.
Treats chronic pain syndromes; administers anesthesia and monitors the patient during surgery.
Treats diseases related to heart and circulatory system.
Also called pedicurist, treats foot diseases and abnormalities. He treats corns, blisters etc using surgical instruments. Go to Top
Treats skin diseases, including some skin cancers
Diagnostic Radiologist
Diagnoses and medically treats diseases and disorders of internal structures of the body. Go to Top
Treats diseases related to liver, pancreas, stomach, intestine, bowels and gall bladder.
Treats diseases of the female reproductive system and genital tract. They care for pregnant women from conception through delivery. Go to Top
Treats diseases of the blood and blood-forming tissues (oncology including cancer and other tumors) Go to Top
Internal Medicine Physician
Treats diseases and disorders of internal structures of the body. Go to Top
Treats kidney diseases.
Treats diseases and disorders of the nervous system.
Conducts surgery of the nervous system.
Manages a woman's health care, especially during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period.
He prescribes diet for various diseases.
Treats women during pregnancy and childbirth Go to Top
Occupational Medicine Physician
Diagnoses and treats work related disease or injury.
Ophthalmologist ( Eye Specialist )
Treats eye defects, injuries, and diseases.
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon
surgically treats diseases, injuries, and defects of the hard and soft tissues of the face, mouth, and jaws.
Orthopaedic Surgeon
Preserves and restores the function of the musculoskeletal system.
Treats diseases connected to skeletal systemdeals with the correction of deformities and prevention of disorders in joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, all bones and bony tissue.
Otolaryngologist (Head and Neck Surgeon)
Treats diseases of the ear, nose, and throat,and some diseases of the head and neck, including facial plastic surgery. Go to Top
Investigate the cause of various diseases by conducting chemical, microscopic and bacteriological test in labs and examining blood, tissues, urine etc. to find the changes in body tissues and organs which cause or are caused by disease
Treats infants, toddlers, children and teenagers.
>Physician He diagnosis and treats the every day and sundry ailments of the human body. MBBS holders practice as physicians
Studies normal functioning of different organs and tissues of human body and investigates effects of physical environments
Plastic Surgeon
Restores, reconstructs, corrects or improves in the shape and appearance of damaged body structures, especially the face.
Provides medical and surgical treatment of the foot.
Treats patients with mental and emotional disorders. After diagnosing physical and behavioural symptoms, drugs and other means may be used for treatment.
Pulmonary Medicine Physician
Diagnoses and treats lung disorders. Go to Top
Radiation Onconlogist / Radiologist
Diagnoses and treats disorders with the use of diagnostic imaging, including X rays, sound waves, radioactive substances, and magnetic fields.
Treats rheumatic diseases, or conditions characterized by inflammation, soreness and stiffness of muscles, and pain in joints and associated structures Go to Top
One who specialises in surgery for all organs of the body. He can further specialise in specific areas Go to Top
Dagnoses and treats the male and female urinary tract and the male reproductive system Go to Top